By Sharon Smith, host of the Qigong Global Summit

With the current world situation, everyone is concerned with staying healthy. We hear on a daily basis about washing our hands, wearing a mask, and limiting contact with others — and these are all useful in the current environment.

But what about adding another ingredient to our understanding of how to navigate this moment in time? What about approaching our situation from another point of view and redefining what it means to be “healthy”?

Qigong masters and practitioners have very important knowledge to share about how to work with our energy (Qi), and it's not about using magical thinking or taking a pill! It turns out that ancient Taoist Qigong techniques are perfect for contemporary life. By practicing mindful movement and meditation and consistently working with our “Qi,” we can strengthen our immune system, enhance our health, increase our longevity, and expand our creativity.

It is my privilege to host the 2020 Qigong Global Summit from September 22-25, featuring a diverse group of Qigong experts. Impressive masters, knowledgeable teachers, committed researchers, and dedicated Qigong practitioners will share their knowledge of how to use Qi to enhance your health and happiness with practices you can use right away. 

Our presenters include Master Mantak Chia, Lee Holden, Daisy Lee, Livia Kohn, Deng Ming-Dao, Dr. George Xavier Love, Dr. Peter Wayne, Dr. Roger Jahnke, Damo Mitchell, Master Mingtong Gu, Violet Li, and many others.

In these fascinating sessions, you’ll gain valuable insights and learn useful practices for managing stress and pain, getting in touch with your breath, increasing your sense of flow, and appreciating the power of your sexual energy.

You’ll also hear about the exciting ways that Qigong is finally being recognized by mainstream medicine.

I invite you to participate in this unique 4-day free experience. Please register here for the 2020 Qigong Global Summit. I look forward to seeing you there!



The Shift Summit & Music Festival, a free online global gathering that continues today and tomorrow, features more than 300 visionaries and artists who are lighting the way to a better future.

Here is your personal invitation from Shift Network CEO Stephen Dinan:

What a truly epic, unprecedented event!  So much dynamic wisdom, from the exquisite blessing of Grandmother Flordemayo to the visionary infusion of Michael Beckwith to today's lineup of Marianne Williamson, Rep. Tim Ryan, Gregg Braden, and music sets from Krishna Das, Deva Premal & Miten, Stellamara, Ajeet, and much more. We have 12 tracks focused on creating breakthrough changes in every sector of society. 

Register for free, help us spread the word, and share the extraordinary lineup we have for the International Day of Peace on Monday, September 21, including Deepak Chopra and Jane Goodall.

It's time to ignite the Shift for real and this is THE event to do it.  That's why Deepak Chopra called it, "The online event of the year to uplift our consciousness and redesign our future."

Register for FREE here!


EDITOR’S NOTE: “The Master Key” by Robert Peng, a featured speaker in The Shift Network’s 2019 Qigong Global Summit, is one of the most profoundly important books I’ve ever read. I can say that it’s life-changing with complete confidence, because it changed my life before I even finished reading it. I was so impressed with this book that we are serializing the section called “One Hundred Days of Darkness and Light” in future issues of Catalyst. You can read the twenty-second installment (as well as the previous ones) here.
— Phil Bolsta  

The uplifting stories in this issue’s “The Nicest Thing” section come from two featured speakers in the Qigong Global Summit: Daisy Lee and Larry Parker.


Finally, we’d love to hear your answer to the question, How has the practice of Qigong improved your life? To share your thoughts in our Facebook Page community, click here.


To the extent that we can discover our own, unique balance, we are whole... and once whole, we can truly dance like the free spirits we are. Qigong calls us to the dance floor of life.
— Garri Garripoli, Qigong: Essence of the Healing Dance


Hey there, I'm Sharon Smith, the host of The Shift Network’s Qigong Global Summit that is coming up September 22-25.

Those of you who are familiar with Qigong know that cultivating our Qi, our life-force energy, with Qigong practices can help us navigate the stressful times we are living in. For those new to Qigong, research has shown that it is a proven method with numerous benefits — decreasing stress, strengthening our energy on many levels, and building our immune systems to name just a few.

As a longtime practitioner and the summit host, needless to say I am absolutely thrilled to share with you the useful knowledge, wisdom, and practices from our very diverse group of amazing Qigong masters, dedicated teachers, and practitioners, all of them known for their expertise.

To watch this 2-minute video and read the rest of the text, click here.


Would you like to join The Shift Network team?

We are seeking two unique and talented individuals for important positions at The Shift Network.

As Director of Social Media Marketing, your primary responsibility will be to develop and execute social media strategies and tactics to align with the company’s overall marketing strategy in attracting, engaging, acquiring, and converting viewers into customers, and customers into viral brand advocates. 

The Program Host provides support and oversight for highly engaging and interactive delivery of online courses and summits offered by The Shift Network in collaboration with faculty partners.

If you're inspired and passionate about joining our team, please click here for more information about these positions. The Shift Network is committed to creating a diverse environment and is an equal-opportunity employer.


In this special video series, prominent authors, speakers, thought leaders, and others answer the question, “What is the nicest thing a non-family member has ever done for you?

Daisy Lee's Story
Qigong teacher

EXCERPT: It sang and sang away, and we left the property bemused and never forgetting what we had seen and experienced. So, we couldn't help it. We ended up making an offer on this property and it closed. They accepted our offer and it closed on my birthday, so that was pretty significant for that as well. But I just think that sometimes the more-than-human world has messages for us and the world is speaking right now, all around the world. 

To watch the video and read the transcript of Daisy’s 7-minute story about a feathered friend who seduced her with his beautiful song, click here.


Larry Parker’s Story
Professional speaker

EXCERPT: So we happened to come across Sharon Smith and we looked at her website, and were very excited about her professionalism, the way her website was constructed, her bio, her experience, all of that. So we gave her a call right then and there. And when we called, the absolute joy and enthusiasm that she greeted us with was just really amazing. And I explained to her that I was blind and I had a bit of experience with Tai Chi.

To watch the video and read the transcript of Larry’s 15-minute story about how life prepared him for his introduction to Qigong, click here.


If you missed any “Nicest Thing” stories, you can catch up on all of them here.


The Master Key
By Robert Peng, a featured speaker in The Shift Network’s 2019 Qigong Global Summit

It's 1972 in the industrial city of Xiangtan, China. A frail child with a heart condition sneaks into a hotel boiler room and befriends the elderly yet vibrant attendant, who eventually reveals his true identity as a revered Qigong master. He heals the boy and, for the next 13 years, secretly teaches him the keys to unlocking the spiritual and healing dimensions of the Life Force.

It sounds like a modern-day fable, but the story is true. And with The Master Key, that grateful student, Robert Peng, invites all of us to enter the next chapter of this empowering path. Here, Master Peng brings together the unique insights of his teacher with the moving account of his own journey.

Click here to read the twenty-second installment (as well as all the previous installments) of this profoundly moving book.


“Own the Shadow of Your Enneagram Personality Type” Facebook Live Q&A with Beatrice Chestnut

Would you like to delve deep into the shadow sides of your Enneagram type to unveil the mysteries of who you are? Enneagram teacher and licensed psychotherapist Beatrice Chestnut will be leading a special Facebook Live Q&A call on Wednesday, September 23, at Noon Pacific to share how you can gain a roadmap to live a more harmonious, fulfilling, soul-led life — even in these difficult times. Click here to get a Facebook Messenger reminder when the event goes live.


“Thrive as an Empath in Evolutionary Times” Facebook Live Q&A with Wendy De Rosa

Would you like to tune in to your intuition, hold energetic boundaries, and restore and maintain your emotional and physical wellbeing? Author, trainer, and intuitive healer Wendy De Rosa will be leading a special Facebook Live Q&A call on Tuesday, September 29, at 1:00pm Pacific to share how you can detoxify your chakras and entire energy system to ground in your Central Channel. Click here to get a Facebook Messenger reminder when the event goes live.


“Embrace the Dark Night to Become the Phoenix Rising” Facebook Live Q&A with Andrew Harvey

Would you like to discover what it means to be reborn into a radically new empowerment of Divine Human with the teachings of the four greatest mystic teachers of the last century? Internationally renowned writer, mystical scholar, and spiritual teacher Andrew Harvey will be leading a special Facebook Live Q&A call on Wednesday, September 30, at 3:00pm Pacific to share how you can rise up out of the ashes to manifest what you were created to be. Click here to get a Facebook Messenger reminder when the event goes live.


Your Voice:

We want to know: How has the practice of Qigong improved your life? To share your thoughts in our Facebook Page community, click here.


Interview with Grandmaster Mantak Chia, a featured speaker in the Qigong Global Summit
By Máire Ní G of Universal Healing Tao Ireland

Master Chia, tell us about your early years and how you found the Tao?

I was born in Thailand to Chinese parents. Here in Thailand there is a big community of Chinese people. They know the simple theory of Yin and Yang, how to eat according to the Tao and how to heal yourself when you get sick. I saw many people doing Qi Gong and Tai Chi in the park and I saw Thai monks sitting in meditation too. When I was small I was interested in all of these things. To read more, click here.


Harness Your Natural Rhythms
By Kathryn Davis, a featured speaker in the Qigong Global Summit

Personally, I feel refreshed every time I practice. It provides an abundance of energy and promotes deep states of relaxation. I have used it many times to heal from various health issues and to uplift my spirit from the doldrums of everyday life to feelings of expansive lightheartedness. The practice provides an energetic buffer zone between myself and the chaos of the world. To read more, click here.


Icons: The Messiah of Self-Realization
By Philip Goldberg

On September 19, 1920, a ship called City of Sparta docked in Boston Harbor. The first passenger ship to sail from India to America since the outbreak of World War I, it had left Calcutta on August 2 with a cargo of merchandise and 61 passengers. A few were photographed for the Boston Globe, including a man in a turban and a full-length tunic, both no doubt orange, identified as “a Hindu of Ranchi, India,” who shocked reporters when he “bid them good morning in perfectly good English.” His name was Swami Yogananda.

To read more about how Yogananda's arrival in America 100 years ago ushered in a new era of spirituality in the West, click here.


Healing in the Dog House: In Praise of Gula
By Shift faculty Robert Moss

All of us who love dogs know that they are great natural therapists and healers. Our dogs love us no matter what and that in itself can boost our immune systems and raise our spirits. Their slobber may be a salve. Many cultures have revered dogs as both therapists and sacred guides — and sacrificial animals. The catacombs of Anubis at Saqqara in ancient Egypt contain seven million mummified dogs. To read more, click here.


The Shift Network is showcasing the leaders, voices, and visions that are guiding us to create a just world by finally and permanently removing the affliction of the Racial Divide from all of our lives. 

The End of Denial
By Ibram X. Kendi
Published in The Atlantic

The abolition of slavery seemed as impossible in the 1850s as equality seems today. But just as the abolitionists of the 1850s demanded the immediate eradication of slavery, immediate equality must be the demand today. Abolish police violence. Abolish mass incarceration. Abolish the racial wealth gap and the gap in school funding. Abolish barriers to citizenship. Abolish voter suppression. Abolish health disparities. Not in 20 years. Not in 10 years. Now. 

To read more, click here.


The Mythology of Racial Progress
By Jennifer A. Richeson, Philip R. Allen Professor of Psychology at Yale University
Published in The Atlantic

A window has opened, and acting fast is essential. It is possible that something has permanently shifted in the American psyche; we should hope that this is true. But history and psychology suggest instead that this window of clarity and opportunity will close quickly — it always has in the past… We should not think of the next year or two as the start of a decade or more of incremental progress. We should think of the next year or two as all the time we have, and a last chance to get it right.

To read more, click here.


Protest Works
By Daniel Q. Gillion, Political-science professor at the University of Pennsylvania
Published in The Atlantic

The point of protest is rarely to swing a single race, however momentous that race may be. It is to change the terms of political debate, and ultimately to change society itself. And indeed, protest has always foreshadowed the most radical shifts in American history. Protest calls attention to problems with the status quo — and often spells political doom for those who have upheld it.

To read more, click here.


Race and the Spiritual Journey
By Milagros Phillips

All the while, I was the only black person in these groups in central Massachusetts. Whenever I spoke about race, my friends would look at me as if I had slipped through the looking glass. These people were kind, caring, intelligent, and spiritually grounded. They believed they were too “spiritual” to be racist. While they would readily show up for spiritual parties, dinners, and celebrations, none of them ever showed up for a race conversation. To read more, click here.


If Not Us, Who? If Not Now, When?
10 Encouragements for Healing Systemic Racism By Deborah Eden Tull, co-host of Shift’s 2020Mindfulness & Meditation Summit

I grew up with social justice advocates as parents. While the dominant paradigm modeled “Only my tribe, that’s who I care about and concern myself with daily," my parents showed me differently through their work. In 1979, when I was 6 years old, my mom read an article about the suffering of communities of color on LA’s Skid Row and took action. She dropped everything and devoted her life to developing new responses to systemic racism that have been kept alive in many forms such as housing instability and homelessness among disadvantaged and vulnerable populations. To read more, click here.


Here are actions The Shift Network is taking to advance racial justice and healing, to uplift BIPOC voices, and to support key organizations whose mission is to transform racism. 

Climbing the Mountain of Racial Healing by Aliah MaJon, Chief Inclusion Officer for The Shift Network

We hosted 30 speakers in June in the free Transforming Racism Facebook Live Series. Click here to view the names of all 30 Transforming Racism speakers and their presentations. You can watch all 30 sessions here.

You can also watch these 20 archived interviews from our African American Wisdom Summit, and the 23 archived interviews in the Healing Cultural Wounds section of our World Peace Library. 

Click here to read our Company Statement regarding George Floyd and incidents of police brutality.

You’ll find more resources and information here and in the “Racial Justice and Healing” section in future issues of Catalyst.


20-Minute Morning Qigong Exercise
By Lee Holden, a featured speaker in the Qigong Global Summit

This 20-minute Qigong routine is designed to give you that lightning flash of vitality that we all want to start our day, or just any time you want a little more energy and vitality. Lee’s expertise and down-to-earth teaching style have made him a popular speaker and workshop facilitator. He’s worked with world-famous healer Deepak Chopra as well as Mantak Chia, a widely revered Qigong expert. Click here to watch and move along with the video.


One Planet Peace Forum
September 25-27

One Planet Peace Forum (OPPF) is presenting a free virtual gathering for building a culture of peace the weekend following International Day of Peace (September 21). This is designed to be a more in-depth, focused follow up to this international event as an opportunity for people to spend time with internationally known peace builders who will offer their visions for a peaceful future. For more information and to register, click here.


Peace Day Global Meditation
September 21 at 8:00pm local time

Heartfulness, in partnership with the UN, is hosting a global online meditation for Peace Day. Join Deepak Chopra, Dr. Bruce Lipton, BK Shivani, Sharon Salzberg, Daaji, and more. Our goal is to meditate with over 40 million people, and create inner peace leading to outer peace. Help shift the planet's consciousness and create peace within. We need YOU to create peace in your heart. To discover more, click here


Ancient Chinese Healing Secrets (free ebook)
By Master Mingtong Gu, a featured speaker in the Qigong Global Summit

Download the Ancient Chinese Healing Secrets ebook by Master Mingtong Gu and learn how Qigong can help you improve your immune system and prevent and heal disease. Learn the healing secrets that have been used in China by masters for thousands of years to prevent and heal dis-ease, increase energy, improve stamina, and master the energy systems of the body, mind, and spirit. Download your free copy here.


Intimate Conversations with the Divine: Prayer, Guidance, and Grace
By Caroline Myss

FROM CAROLINE MYSS: When we pray, we ask the Divine to show us how to see, how to speak, how to create. We ask God to reveal, to illuminate, the right path for us. God, show me how to see this… Then, suddenly, the word hope arises in you. Or patience. This word, this revelation, becomes the most holy word you have… This is the true meaning of prayer: a request for help in how to see. 

I hope this book, these prayers, will bring you comfort and grace, and help you through the difficult times ahead. And I hope they will inspire you to believe that with God, all things are possible: endless miracles, divine intervention, and the intimate company of holy angels. 

To order your copy, click here.


Our Moment of Choice
Robert Atkinson

Our Moment of Choice sounds the call to join a growing movement for conscious evolution. It features brilliant chapters by 43 Evolutionary Leaders, including Deepak Chopra, Lynne McTaggart, Gregg Braden, Michael Bernard Beckwith, Jean Houston, and many more. These leading-edge thinkers reflect upon and offer creative solutions to the challenges facing humanity, providing their own visions for how we can ensure a successful completion to the transformation of consciousness already underway. To order your copy, click here.


Through God’s Eyes: Finding Peace and Purpose in a Troubled World by Phil Bolsta of The Shift Network. Through God’s Eyes is a road map for living a more peaceful, beautiful life. It’s the only book that shows you how dozens of spiritual principles interact, how to weave them together into a cohesive worldview, and how to practically apply this spiritual wisdom to bring joy and vitality to your daily life. For more information and to order your copy, click here. To request a free sample chapter from the author, email Phil at

Through God’s Eyes is a superb book, a truly enlightened piece of work that is an essential read for all people who are truly devoted to the care and refinement of their soul. Phil is a contemporary mystic, a man whose life is a living commitment to spiritual service. I am honored to know him.
– Caroline Myss, author of Anatomy of the Spirit and Defy Gravity

One of the most important books I’ve ever read. An incredible compilation of spiritual wisdom and insight. It’s the owner’s manual God should give you when you’re born.
– Robert Peterson, author of Answers Within


For several years, The Shift Network has hosted Indigenous leaders from around the world and invited them to share their sacred knowledge, rituals, and practices to guide us in a way of living that is sustainable, healthy, and just. We’re thus delighted that the Global Indigenous Wisdom Library makes this “virtual council” of leaders and their wisdom available for everyone, everywhere for free. The Global Indigenous Wisdom Library is a collection of audio and video interviews featuring Indigenous leaders from around the world sharing prayers, sacred songs, prophecies, spiritual teachings, and pathways to healing, as well as concrete examples for birthing a new era — one in which all members of the human family are treated with respect, understanding, compassion, and justice. This sacred wisdom is important medicine for us all.

The production of The Global Indigenous Wisdom Library is a gift from The Shift Network, designed to inspire, inform, and involve you by highlighting the voices and important messages of Indigenous leaders from around the world. We want to give a heartfelt thanks to Hereditary Chief Phil Lane Jr. (“Brother Phil”) for his partnership in helping create this Indigenous Wisdom collection. And we thank all the speakers who have contributed to this body of knowledge. To discover more, click here.


World Peace Library. Designed for the layperson and professional peacebuilder alike, the World Peace Library has over 425 audio and video interviews with some of the most remarkable, inspiring peacebuilders in the world available to you at NO COST. You’ll find hundreds of hours of inspirational, peacebuilding, compassion-spreading talks and trainings at your fingertips with this FREE global resource. There’s no way you can’t come away from the World Peace Library deeply inspired, transformed — and part of the solution. Click here to find out how to take peace to the next level — and help co-create a global culture of peace that leaves a legacy of good for our children, our children’s children and all of humanity and life on earth.


Book by Stephen Dinan: Sacred America, Sacred World. Infused with visionary power, Sacred America, Sacred World is a manifesto for our country’s evolution that is both political and deeply spiritual. It offers profound hope that America can grow beyond our current challenges and manifest our noblest destiny, which the book shows is rooted in sacred principles that transcend left or right political views. To order your copy, click here.


If you would like to submit something to Catalyst, please see the submission guidelines: click here.


Click here to see all previous issues of Catalyst.


2020 Issue 21 • Sep 20

The Shift Catalyst is a bi-weekly ezine for conscious change, powered by The Shift Network.

If you received this Catalyst from a friend, click here to subscribe.

• Shift Network Update
• The Nicest Thing
• Profiles
• Facebook Live Q&As
• Featured Articles
• Racial Justice and Healing
• Featured Media
• Movement News
• Action of the Week
• Shift Spotlight
• Shift Impact
• Partner Spotlight
• Featured Artist
• Allies of the Shift
• Back Issues

Like Us. Collaborate!

Invite your family and friends to participate in the Qigong Global Summit, taking place August 22-25. Life-changing insights and practices await! To discover more — and register for free — click here.


Experience Renewal Through the “Global Dark Night” — A free video event with internationally renowned writer, mystical scholar, and spiritual teacher Andrew Harvey. Discover how to rebirth yourself during this evolutionary moment by aligning with mystical hidden truths that will provide you with understanding and resilience in the days to come. Wednesday, September 23, at 5:30pm Pacific


Toltec Dreaming & the Prophecies of the Suns — A free video event with mystic, healer, dream teacher, and author Sergio Magaña. Discover the once-secret dream wisdom of the Chichimeca — and experience a powerful dream practice to transmute the energies of a current challenge and manifest a more desirable outcome. Saturday, September 26, at 10:00am Pacific


Experience a Soul-Soothing Crystal Bowl Sound Bath — A free video event with crystal alchemy sound healer Jeralyn Glass. Find joy, passion, and an authentic expression of who you really are as you receive the healing frequencies of crystal alchemy singing bowls — what Jeralyn calls “the big, sonic crystal hug we all need.” Wednesday, September 30, at 5:30pm Pacific


Find Your Own State of Inner Harmony — A free video event with His Holiness the 12th Chamgon Kenting Tai Situpa. Occupy the peaceful calm that comes from a higher consciousness so you can be a source of light and joy in the world. Saturday, October 3, at 10:00am Pacific


Restore Your Wellbeing With Adaptogenic Herbs & Mushrooms — With Teresa Boardwine, the founder of the Green Comfort School of Herbal Medicine. Build a solid foundation for health, wellness, stamina, and vitality… AND maintain that foundation through all the stressors of life — especially in our current times of uncertainty and upheaval.
New 7-Week Live Video Training Starts Monday, September 28


Own the Shadow of Your Enneagram Personality Type — With Enneagram teacher and licensed psychotherapist Beatrice Chestnut. Delve deep into the shadow sides of your Enneagram type, unveiling the mysteries of who you are and gaining a roadmap to living a more harmonious, fulfilling, soul-led life — even in these difficult times.
New 7-Week Live Video Training Starts Thursday, October 1


Upcoming Events (all subject to change):

Wendy De Rosa 7-week course
Dreamwork Summit
• Andrew Harvey 7-week course
• Sergio Magaña 7-week course
• Jeralyn Glass 7-week course
• H.H. the 12th Tai Situ Rinpoche 5-week course
Beyond the Veil Summit
• Mark Matousek 7-week course
• Christine Stevens 10-week course
• Ellen Meredith 7-week course
• Mingtong Gu 7-week course

• Judith Orloff 12-week course
• Kahontakwas Diane Longboat 7-week course
• Cyndi Dale 12-week course
• Robert Moss 7-week course
• Matthew Fox & Mirabai Starr 7-week course
• Suzanne Giesemann 7-week course


The Global Village Foundation

The Global Village Foundation (GVF) is a nonprofit humanitarian organization that serves the developing communities of rural SE Asia. We focus primarily on education, encouraging literacy and supporting local and regional arts and culture. We provide life lessons to local recipients and local and international volunteers through hands-on engagement at the grassroots level. GVF is a non-governmental, nonreligious, and nonpolitical 501(c)(3)organization based in California. It was founded by author, peacemaker, and humanitarian Le Ly Hayslip,whose bestselling memoir was made into the 1993 movie, Heaven and Earth, by Academy Award-winning director Oliver Stone.

Click here to visit the website.
Click here to make a donation.


Buddhist Global Relief

Buddhist Global Relief (BGR) projects are designed to provide direct food aid to people afflicted by hunger and malnutrition, to promote ecologically sustainable agriculture, to support the education of girls and women, and to give women an opportunity to start right livelihood projects to support their families. 

Click here for more information.
Click here to make a donation.


Julianna Barwick

Pitchfork had this to say about Healing Is a Miracle:

The vocalist and producer Juliana Barwick’s revelatory new album asks us to picture healing at a moment when the task feels impossible. [Her] new album, Healing Is a Miracle, couldn’t be more at odds with the dreary landscape in which it arrives, and yet it’s difficult to imagine it existing at any other moment. Refuge has always been the promise of her music — the restorative power of those sylph-like vocals, soaked in reverb and looped ad infinitum. But her vision of ambient music is also fundamentally open-ended; it asks you to make something of it, to pin it in time and space before it fully unfurls. Healing is a warm, shifting collection that doesn’t so much anticipate the current moment as adapt to it: it’s a medium for the unconscious, a salve for the collective wound. At a time when healing feels impossible, Barwick asks us to picture it together.

Click here to watch her video for “Healing Is a Miracle.”
Click here to view her albums.
Click here to view her videos.


The Path

Solar Action Alliance

Peace Through Commerce

Evolutionary Leaders

The Foundation for Conscious Evolution

The Shift Movie

Humanity's Team

Green America

The National Peace Academy

Sacred Centers

Center for Sacred Studies

International Cities of Peace

Agape International Spiritual Center

Gaiafield Project

Click here to apply for inclusion above.